Research On The Effects Of Touch

Transforming Touch®

Where Intention Goes, Energy FLOWS

Transforming Touch® is an attachment-focused, neurophysiological method of hands-on healing. I see touch as the missing language of Developmental Trauma. After years of using talk therapy with a severely traumatized population without a clear story to match the symptoms, I began a search for a way to communicate with a non-verbal system. I kept hearing in my head, "How do you expect to bring about healing in a system that speaks a different language?"

As a psychotherapist, my options seemed limited. Most of the scholars of Psychology leaned heavy on talk therapy. So, I had to look deeper and further to find something that not only seemed effective for clients but also was effective for me. User Friendly so to speak. While attending an EMDR conference in Denver, they had a speaker named Peter Levine. He talked about Somatic Experiencing and healing trauma. This was my first real introduction to Somatic Psychology. I signed up for the next class coming to Austin and started the training. I wish I could say it was a breeze and everything worked just right, but that wasn't my experience. It was clearly a stepping stone for me to move into touch. I met Kathy Kain at my advance training and got a sniff of touch and that seemed to resonate for me.

I moved on to train and assist Kathy in her work and eventually co-developed Somatic Resilience and Regulation with Kathy. Later we co-authored "Nurturing Resilience", a best seller on Amazon. This allowed for the birth of Transforming Touch®. Using it with my clients, I continue to grow and learn new ways of using touch to assist my Developmental Trauma clients with their own healings.

​For most, it seems that they experienced an unavailable caretaker in the nursery. Either during the pregnancy or within the first six weeks of life. Alan Shore has done lots of research on this and sees this as the most important time for someone to develop a healthy attachment system. Combining Shore's work with Stephen Porges' work on Polyvagal Theory, and my own work with threat response and autonomic regulation along with dashes of Somatic Experiencing seems to have been the force behind developing Transforming Touch.

If Shore is right, about forming a reciprocal relationship in the nursery, then what better way to communicate than through touch. When we touch someone, they are naturally touching us back. The subtle repair of early attachment ruptures begin to repair as the body and mind interweave with one another. Transforming Touch allows and holds space for the client to begin to re-pattern there earlier experiences that are held in their somatic awareness. The client begins to grow in their healing somatically which affects their Spirit. The relationship holds the opportunity for a reciprocal relationship between client and practitioner.

"Where intention goes, energy flows" is a distinction in Transforming Touch. Bringing the practitioner's mindset into the client's sense of healing. Listening to the client and their story and most of all, their desire to heal. In Transforming Touch, through touching into different systems and patterns, while holding attention and intention for the client, we begin to find a sense of resonance within our client's autonomic nervous system. We see this moment as the moment the client moves into their now spacious window of tolerance and sometimes for the very first time.

We begin with our own presence and focus on the resonation and dialogue between client and practitioner. The more we are capable of being present in our own bodies, the better the chances are for our client's bodies to reach out and find a connection. An experience for most with Developmental Trauma that they have never experienced. Every intention we have for your clients can be felt in our bodies. This mirroring helps to strengthen our clients sense of self and allows their body to find a new pattern of healing. The initiation of intent, based upon what each person is perceiving, may be shared consciously and/or unconsciously by both people. This is the type of non-verbal repair that is necessary for our clients to create a new narrative about their lives.
Perception and Imagination are often times ruptured and suffer the most in a survival oriented system. Allowing the client to be where they are in life or the moment without judgement and brining in a sense of curiosity to the session can begin to heal the body. Allowing for a sense of pedulation of information and time for integration free the soul.

Transforming Touch relies on the somatosensory system. This system connects with all the sensations we feel such as hot, cold, rough, smooth, pressure, pain, tickle, itch, vibration and more to name a few of the sensations recognized in the body. Within the system, we are aware of four main types of receptors, mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors, pain receptors, and proprioceptors.

Mechanoreceptors perceive sensations such as pressure, vibration, and texture. When employing Transforming Touch® we apply supportive touch to the skin in specific locations of the body. Thermoreceptors perceive temperatures for the most part. Pain Receptors transmit pain and proprioceptors sense the position of the different parts of the body in relation to each other and the surround ing environment.

​To soothe the nervous system and restore a sense of safety and trust in the moment, it helps to use the power of touch. Warm, safe touch activates the release of oxytocin—the “tend and befriend” hormone that creates pleasant feelings in the body and is the brain’s direct and immediate antidote to the stress hormone cortisol.
Oxytocin is one of a cascade of neurochemicals that are part of the brain-body social engagement system. Because being in the presence of other people is so critical to our well-being and safety, nature has provided this system to encourage us to reach out to others and connect. That’s why touch, along with physical proximity and eye contact if the client can tolerate, evokes a viscerally felt sense of reassurance that brings the system back into the window of tolerance.

Somatic memory holds all the traumatic memories within our bodies. While working with non-verbal and early traumas, Transforming Touch® is a way or reaching those traumas.

​Transforming Touch® is not always about using physical touch. It can also be the intent of Transforming Touch® that can affect change in the system.

Transforming the Experience-Based Brain uses Transforming Touch® to activate change and is taught during the classroom process.

Research

Mayo Clinic. "Gut Touch" Mayo Clinic Researchers Discover Important Trigger for Serotonin Release. (8/21/2018)

Key Studies in Touch ResearchAdomat, R., & Killingworth, A. (1994). Care of the critically ill patient: The impact of stress on the use of touch in intensive therapy units. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 19(5), 912-922.

Allison, L. K., Kiemel, T., & Jeka, J. J. (2006). Multisensory reweighting of vision and touch is intact in healthy and fall-prone older adults. Experimental brain research, 175(2), 342-352.

Andersson, K., Wändell, P., & Törnkvist, L. (2004). Tactile massage improves glycaemic control in women with type 2 diabetes: a pilot study. Practical diabetes international, 21(3), 105-109.

Ardiel, E. L., & Rankin, C. H. (2010). The importance of touch in development. Paediatrics & child health, 15(3), 153.

Atzil, S., Hendler, T., & Feldman, R. (2011). Specifying the neurobiological basis of human attachment: Brain, hormones, and behavior in synchronous and intrusive mothers. Neuropsychopharmacology, 36(13), 2603-2615.

Backman, L., & von Hofsten, C. (Eds.). (2002). Psychology at the Turn of the Millennium, Volume 2: Social, Developmental and Clinical Perspectives (Vol. 2). Psychology Press.

Barnett, C. R., Leiderman, P. H., Grobstein, R., & Klaus, M. (1970). Neonatal separation: the maternal side of interactional deprivation. Pediatrics, 45(2), 197-205.

Bartz, J. A. (2011). Serotonin and the Neurochemistry of Intimacy. Biological psychiatry, 69(8), 716-717.

Beckett, C., Bredenkamp, D., Castle, J., Groothues, C., O'CONNOR, T. G., & Rutter, M. (2002). Behavior patterns associated with institutional deprivation: a study of children adopted from Romania. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 23(5), 297-303.

Bell, H. C., Pellis, S. M., & Kolb, B. (2010). Juvenile peer play experience and the development of the orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortices. Behavioural brain research, 207(1), 7-13.

Bigelow, A., Power, M., MacLellan‐Peters, J., Alex, M., & McDonald, C. (2012). Effect of Mother/Infant Skin‐to‐Skin Contact on Postpartum Depressive Symptoms and Maternal Physiological Stress. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing, 41(3), 369-382.

Bingham, B., McFadden, K., Zhang, X., Bhatnagar, S., Beck, S., & Valentino, R. (2010). Early adolescence as a critical window during which social stress distinctly alters behavior and brain norepinephrine activity.Neuropsychopharmacology, 36(4), 896-909.

Björnsdotter, M., Löken, L., Olausson, H., Vallbo, Å., & Wessberg, J. (2009). Somatotopic organization of gentle touch processing in the posterior insular cortex. The Journal of Neuroscience, 29(29), 9314-9320.

Blackwell, P. L. (2000). The influence of touch on child development: Implications for intervention. Infants & Young Children, 13(1), 25-39.

Bond, C. (2002, December). Positive touch and massage in the neonatal unit: a British approach. In Seminars in neonatology (Vol. 7, No. 6, pp. 477-486). WB Saunders.

Bonitz, V. (2008). Use of physical touch in the" talking cure": A journey to the outskirts of psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 45(3), 391.

Bonanno, G. A., Galea, S., Bucciarelli, A., & Vlahov, D. (2006). Psychological Resilience After Disaster New York City in the Aftermath of the September 11th Terrorist Attack. Psychological Science, 17(3), 181-186.

Bora, E., Yucel, M., & Allen, N. B. (2009). Neurobiology of human affiliative behaviour: implications for psychiatric disorders. Current Opinion in Psychiatry,22(3), 320-325.

Bridges, K. M. B. (1932). Emotional development in early infancy. Child development, 324-341.

Brüne, M. (2005). “Theory of mind” in schizophrenia: A review of the literature.Schizophrenia Bulletin, 31(1), 21-42.

Buschmann, M. T., Hollinger-Smith, L. M., & Peterson-Kokkas, S. E. (1999). Implementation of expressive physical touch in depressed older adults. Journal of Clinical Geropsychology, 5(4), 291-300.

Bush, E. (2001). The Use of Human Touch to Improve the Well-Being of Older Adults A Holistic Nursing Intervention. Journal of holistic nursing, 19(3), 256-270.

Bush, George, et al. "Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex: a role in reward-based decision making." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99.1 (2002): 523-528.

Carlson, M. C., Saczynski, J. S., Rebok, G. W., Seeman, T., Glass, T. A., McGill, S., ... & Fried, L. P. (2008). Exploring the effects of an “everyday” activity program on executive function and memory in older adults: Experience Corps®. The Gerontologist, 48(6), 793-801.

Cascio, C. J. (2010). Somatosensory processing in neurodevelopmental disorders. Journal of neurodevelopmental disorders, 2(2), 62-69.

Chalmers, D. J. (1990). Consciousness and cognition. In On AI CD-ROM, Revision.

Chang, S. O. (2001). The conceptual structure of physical touch in caring. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 33(6), 820-827.

Choi, M. S., & Kim, G. J. (2011). Effects of Paters' Duola Touch during Labor on the Paternal Attachment and Role Confidence to Neonate and Couple Attachment. Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing, 17(4), 426-437.

Chodron, P. (2007). The places that scare you: A guide to fearlessness in difficult times. Shambhala Publications.

Cobb, M., Puchalski, C. M., & Rumbold, B. (Eds.). (2012). Oxford Textbook of Spirituality in Healthcare. Oxford University Press.

Collinge, W., Kahn, J., Yarnold, P., Bauer-Wu, S., & McCorkle, R. (2007). Couples and cancer: feasibility of brief instruction in massage and touch therapy to build caregiver efficacy. Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology, 5(4), 147.

Cooke, B. M., & Shukla, D. (2011). Double Helix: Reciprocity between juvenile play and brain development. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 1(4), 459-470.

Cooney, C. A., Dave, A. A., & Wolff, G. L. (2002). Maternal methyl supplements in mice affect epigenetic variation and DNA methylation of offspring. The Journal of nutrition, 132(8), 2393S-2400S.

Corbin, L. W., Mellis, B. K., Beaty, B. L., & Kutner, J. S. (2009). The use of complementary and alternative medicine therapies by patients with advanced cancer and pain in a hospice setting: a multicentered, descriptive study.Journal of palliative medicine, 12(1), 7-8.

Corso, J. F. (1971). Sensory processes and age effects in normal adults.Journal of Gerontology.

Crane, J. D., Ogborn, D. I., Cupido, C., Melov, S., Hubbard, A., Bourgeois, J. M., & Tarnopolsky, M. A. (2012). Massage therapy attenuates inflammatory signaling after exercise-induced muscle damage. Science translational medicine, 4(119), 119ra13-119ra13.

Crews, D. (2008). Epigenetics and its implications for behavioral neuroendocrinology. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology, 29(3), 344-357.

Dar, R., Kahn, D. T., & Carmeli, R. (2012). The relationship between sensory processing, childhood rituals and obsessive–compulsive symptoms. Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry, 43(1), 679-684.

de la Fuente-Fernández, R., Ruth, T. J., Sossi, V., Schulzer, M., Calne, D. B., & Stoessl, A. J. (2001). Expectation and dopamine release: mechanism of the placebo effect in Parkinson's disease. Science, 293(5532), 1164-1166.

de Medeiros, K., Saunders, P. A., & Sabat, S. R. (2012). Friendships and the social environments of people with dementia: Introduction to the Special Issue.Dementia, 11(3), 281-285.

Ditzen, B., Neumann, I. D., Bodenmann, G., von Dawans, B., Turner, R. A., Ehlert, U., & Heinrichs, M. (2007). Effects of different kinds of couple interaction on cortisol and heart rate responses to stress in women. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 32(5), 565-574.

Eaton, M., Mitchell-Bonair, I. L., & Friedmann, E. (1986). The effect of touch on nutritional intake of chronic organic brain syndrome patients. Journal of Gerontology, 41(5), 611-616.

Edvardsson, J., Sandman, P. O., & Rasmussen, B. H. (2003). Meanings of giving touch in the care of older patients: becoming a valuable person and professional. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 12(4), 601-609.

Engebretson, J. (1996). Urban healers: An experiential description of American healing touch groups. Qualitative Health Research, 6(4), 526-541.

Ernst, E. (2009). Massage therapy for cancer palliation and supportive care: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Supportive Care in Cancer,17(4), 333-337.

Feifel, D., & Reza, T. (1999). Oxytocin modulates psychotomimetic-induced deficits in sensorimotor gating. Psychopharmacology, 141(1), 93-98.

Feifel, D., MacDonald, K., Cobb, P., & Minassian, A. (2012). Adjunctive intranasal oxytocin improves verbal memory in people with schizophrenia.Schizophrenia research, 139(1), 207-210.

Feldman, R., Keren, M., Gross-Rozval, O., & Tyano, S. (2004). Mother–child touch patterns in infant feeding disorders: relation to maternal, child, and environmental factors. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(9), 1089-1097.

Feldman, Ruth. "Oxytocin and social affiliation in humans." Hormones and behavior 61.3 (2012): 380-391.

Field, T. (2010). Touch for socioemotional and physical well-being: A review. Developmental Review, 30(4), 367-383.

Field, T. M. (1995). Touch in early development. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Field, T., Lasko, D., Mundy, P., Henteleff, T., Kabat, S., Talpins, S., & Dowling, M. (1997). Brief report: autistic children's attentiveness and responsivity improve after touch therapy. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 27(3), 333-338.

Fisher, J. D., Rytting, M., & Heslin, R. (1976). Hands touching hands: Affective and evaluative effects of an interpersonal touch. Sociometry, 416-421.

Fraley, R. C., & Shaver, P. R. (1998). Airport separations: A naturalistic study of adult attachment dynamics in separating couples. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(5), 1198.

Francis, S., Rolls, E. T., Bowtell, R., McGlone, F., O'Doherty, J., Browning, A., ... & Smith, E. (1999). The representation of pleasant touch in the brain and its relationship with taste and olfactory areas. Neuroreport, 10(3), 453-459.

Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American psychologist,56(3), 218.

Fromme, D. K., Jaynes, W. E., Taylor, D. K., Hanold, E. G., Daniell, J., Rountree, J. R., & Fromme, M. L. (1989). Nonverbal behavior and attitudes toward touch. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 13(1), 3-14.

Fusar-Poli, P., Byrne, M., Valmaggia, L., Day, F., Tabraham, P., Johns, L., & McGuire, P. (2010). Social dysfunction predicts two years clinical outcome in people at ultra high risk for psychosis. Journal of psychiatric research, 44(5), 294-301.

Gescheider, G. A., Edwards, R. R., Lackner, E. A., Bolanowski, S. J., & Verrillo, R. T. (1996). The effects of aging on information-processing channels in the sense of touch: III. Differential sensitivity to changes in stimulus intensity. Somatosensory & motor research, 13(1), 73-80.

Gleeson, M., & Timmins, F. (2005). A review of the use and clinical effectiveness of touch as a nursing intervention. Clinical Effectiveness in Nursing, 9(1), 69-77

Gluck, J. P., Harlow, H. F., & Schiltz, K. A. (1973). Differential effect of early enrichment and deprivation on learning in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 84(3), 598.

Golberg, B. (1998). Connection: an exploration of spirituality in nursing care.Journal of Advanced Nursing, 27(4), 836-842.

Goleman, D. (2006). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. Random House Digital, Inc.

Gordon, I., Voos, A. C., Bennett, R. H., Bolling, D. Z., Pelphrey, K. A., & Kaiser, M. D. (2011). Brain mechanisms for processing affective touch. Human brain mapping.

Gordon, I., Zagoory-Sharon, O., Leckman, J. F., & Feldman, R. (2010). Oxytocin, cortisol, and triadic family interactions. Physiology & behavior, 101(5), 679-684.

Gordon, Ilanit, et al. "Oxytocin and social motivation." Developmental cognitive neuroscience 1.4 (2011): 471-493.

Gottman, J. M. (1994). What Predicts Divorce?: The Relationship Between Marital Processes and Marital Outcomes: John Mordechai Gottman. Routledge.

Grewen, K. M., Girdler, S. S., Amico, J., & Light, K. C. (2005). Effects of partner support on resting oxytocin, cortisol, norepinephrine, and blood pressure before and after warm partner contact. Psychosomatic medicine,67(4), 531-538.

Guerrero, L. K., & Andersen, P. A. (1991). The waxing and waning of relational intimacy: Touch as a function of relational stage, gender and touch avoidance. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 8(2), 147-165.

Guzzetta, A., Baldini, S., Bancale, A., Baroncelli, L., Ciucci, F., Ghirri, P., ... & Maffei, L. (2009). Massage accelerates brain development and the maturation of visual function. The Journal of Neuroscience, 29(18), 6042-6051.

Hall, J. A., & Veccia, E. M. (1990). More" touching" observations: New insights on men, women, and interpersonal touch. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59(6), 1155.

Helldin, L., Kane, J. M., Karilampi, U., Norlander, T., & Archer, T. (2007). Remission in prognosis of functional outcome: a new dimension in the treatment of patients with psychotic disorders. Schizophrenia research, 93(1), 160-168.

Herman, J. L. (1997). Trauma and recovery. Basic Books.

Herrera, E., Reissland, N., & Shepherd, J. (2004). Maternal touch and maternal child-directed speech: effects of depressed mood in the postnatal period. Journal of Affective Disorders, 81(1), 29-39.

Hildyard, K. L., & Wolfe, D. A. (2002). Child neglect: developmental issues and outcomes☆. Child abuse & neglect, 26(6), 679-695.

Hopper, J. W., Frewen, P. A., van der Kolk, B. A., & Lanius, R. A. (2007). Neural correlates of reexperiencing, avoidance, and dissociation in PTSD: Symptom dimensions and emotion dysregulation in responses to script‐driven trauma imagery. Journal of traumatic stress, 20(5), 713-725.

Hubble, M. A., Noble, F. C., & Robinson, S. E. (1981). The effect of counselor touch in an initial counseling session. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 28(6), 533.

In Narvaez, D., Panksepp, J., Schore, A., & Gleason, T. (Eds.) (for 2012). Human Nature, Early Experience and the Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness. New York: Oxford University Press.

Iwasaki, S., Inoue, K., Kiriike, N., & Hikiji, K. (2000). Effect of maternal separation on feeding behavior of rats in later life. Physiology & behavior, 70(5), 551-556.

Jain, S., McMahon, G. F., Hasen, P., Kozub, M. P., Porter, V., King, R., & Guarneri, E. M. (2012). Healing Touch with Guided Imagery for PTSD in returning active duty military: a randomized controlled trial. Military medicine,177(9), 1015-1021.

Johnson, J. G., Smailes, E. M., Cohen, P., Brown, J., & Bernstein, D. P. (2000). Associations between four types of childhood neglect and personality disorder symptoms during adolescence and early adulthood: Findings of a community-based longitudinal study. Journal of Personality Disorders, 14(2), 171-187.

Jones, Nancy Aaron, and Krystal D. Mize. "Touch interventions positively affect development." Low-Cost Approaches to Promote Physical and Mental Health. Springer New York, 2007. 353-369.

Jones, S. E., & Brown, B. C. (1996). Touch attitudes and behaviors, recollections of early childhood touch, and social self-confidence. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 20(3), 147-163.

Jourard, S. M. (1966). An Exploratory Study of Body‐Accessibility1. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 5(3), 221-231.

Julien, D., Brault, M., Chartrand, É., & Bégin, J. (2000). Immediacy behaviours and synchrony in satisfied and dissatisfied couples. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement, 32(2), 84.

Jung, M. J., & Fouts, H. N. (2011). Multiple caregivers’ touch interactions with young children among the Bofi foragers in Central Africa. International Journal of Psychology, 46(1), 24-32.

Kakar, D. N. (1983). Traditional healers in North India: a study. The Nursing journal of India, 74(3), 61.

Kareem, A. M., & Barnard, C. J. (1982). The importance of kinship and familiarity in social interactions between mice. Animal Behaviour, 30(2), 594-601.

Kertay, L., & Reviere, S. L. (1993). The use of touch in psychotherapy: Theoretical and ethical considerations. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 30(1), 32.

Kleinman, A., & Sung, L. H. (1979). Why do indigenous practitioners successfully heal?. Social Science & Medicine. Part B: Medical Anthropology,13(1), 7-26.

Kochanska, G., & Aksan, N. (1995). Mother‐child mutually positive affect, the quality of child compliance to requests and prohibitions, and maternal control as correlates of early internalization. Child Development, 66(1), 236-254.

Kochanska, G., Coy, K. C., & Murray, K. T. (2001). The Development of Self‐Regulation in the First Four Years of Life. Child development, 72(4), 1091-1111.

Kojima, S., Stewart, R. A., Demas, G. E., & Alberts, J. R. (2012). Maternal Contact Differentially Modulates Central and Peripheral Oxytocin in Rat Pups During a Brief Regime of Mother–Pup Interaction that Induces a Filial Huddling Preference. Journal of neuroendocrinology, 24(5), 831-840.

Kotch, J. B., Lewis, T., Hussey, J. M., English, D., Thompson, R., Litrownik, A. J., ... & Dubowitz, H. (2008). Importance of early neglect for childhood aggression. Pediatrics, 121(4), 725-731.

Kozak, L. E., Kayes, L., McCarty, R., Walkinshaw, C., Congdon, S., Kleinberger, J., ... & Standish, L. J. (2009). Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by Washington state hospices. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine, 25(6), 463-468.

Krueger, J. (2011). Extended cognition and the space of social interaction. Consciousness and cognition, 20(3), 643-657.

Kutner, J. S., Smith, M. C., Corbin, L., Hemphill, L., Benton, K., Mellis, B. K., ... & Fairclough, D. L. (2008). Massage Therapy versus Simple Touch to Improve Pain and Mood in Patients with Advanced Cancer A Randomized Trial. Annals of internal medicine, 149(6), 369-379.

Lawton, M. B. (1998). Physical contact between teachers and preschool-age children in early childhood programs.

Liggins, G. C. (1994). The role of cortisol in preparing the fetus for birth. Reproduction, Fertility and Development, 6(2), 141-150.

Lindgren, L., Westling, G., Brulin, C., Lehtipalo, S., Andersson, M., & Nyberg, L. (2012). Pleasant human touch is represented in pregenual anterior cingulate cortex. Neuroimage, 59(4), 3427-3432.

Lindsey, E. W., Cremeens, P. R., Colwell, M. J., & Caldera, Y. M. (2009). The Structure of Parent–Child Dyadic Synchrony in Toddlerhood and Children's Communication Competence and Self‐control. Social Development, 18(2), 375-396.

Löken, L. S., & Olausson, H. (2010). The skin as a social organ. Experimental brain research, 204(3), 305-314.

Louisse, S. R. (2011). Deficits in the development of nonverbal behaviour and mild depression in adolescence: Predisposition, state, or scar?.

Lyons-Ruth, K. (1996). Attachment relationships among children with aggressive behavior problems: The role of disorganized early attachment patterns. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 64(1), 64.

MacDuff, S., Grodin, M. A., & Gardiner, P. (2011). The use of complementary and alternative medicine among refugees: A systematic review. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 13(3), 585-599.

Major, B. (1981). Gender patterns in touching behavior. In Gender and nonverbal behavior (pp. 15-37). Springer New York.

Major, B., Schmidlin, A. M., & Williams, L. (1990). Gender patterns in social touch: The impact of setting and age. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(4), 634.

Makinodan, M., Rosen, K. M., Ito, S., & Corfas, G. (2012). A Critical Period for Social Experience–Dependent Oligodendrocyte Maturation and Myelination.Science, 337(6100), 1357-1360.

Malone, A., Carroll, A., & Murphy, B. P. (2012). Facial affect recognition deficits: A potential contributor to aggression in psychotic illness. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17(1), 27-35.

Marazziti, D., & Canale, D. (2004). Hormonal changes when falling in love.Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29(7), 931-936.

McCabe, C., Rolls, E. T., Bilderbeck, A., & McGlone, F. (2008). Cognitive influences on the affective representation of touch and the sight of touch in the human brain. Social cognitive and affective neuroscience, 3(2), 97-108.

McGlone, F., Olausson, H., Boyle, J. A., Jones‐Gotman, M., Dancer, C., Guest, S., & Essick, G. (2012). Touching and feeling: differences in pleasant touch processing between glabrous and hairy skin in humans. European Journal of Neuroscience, 35(11), 1782-1788.

Mello, M. F., Serafim, P. M., Moraes, M. L., Miranda, A. M., Soussumi, Y., & Mello, A. F. (2011). The Impact of Early Maternal Presence on Child Development and the Stress Response System. Neuropsychoanalysis: An Interdisciplinary Journal for Psychoanalysis and the Neurosciences, 13(2), 177-186.

Mittal, V. A., & Walker, E. F. (2007). Movement abnormalities predict conversion to Axis I psychosis among prodromal adolescents. Journal of abnormal psychology, 116(4), 796.

Moszkowski, R. J., Stack, D. M., Girouard, N., Field, T. M., Hernandez-Reif, M., & Diego, M. (2009). Touching behaviors of infants of depressed mothers during normal and perturbed interactions. Infant Behavior and Development, 32(2), 183-194.

Naber, F., van IJzendoorn, M. H., Deschamps, P., van Engeland, H., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2010). Intranasal oxytocin increases fathers’ observed responsiveness during play with their children: a double-blind within-subject experiment. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35(10), 1583-1586.

Nagy, Z., Westerberg, H., & Klingberg, T. (2004). Maturation of white matter is associated with the development of cognitive functions during childhood.Journal of cognitive neuroscience, 16(7), 1227-1233.

Narvaez, D., & Gleason, T. (2013). Developmental optimization. Evolution, early experience and human development: From research to practice and policy, 307-325.

Nederlof, A. F., Muris, P., & Hovens, J. E. (2011). Threat/control-override symptoms and emotional reactions to positive symptoms as correlates of aggressive behavior in psychotic patients. The Journal of nervous and mental disease, 199(5), 342-347.

Nelson, E. E., Leibenluft, E., McClure, E., & Pine, D. S. (2005). The social re-orientation of adolescence: a neuroscience perspective on the process and its relation to psychopathology. Psychological medicine, 35(02), 163-174.

Numbers, A. T., & Links, U. I. Aging changes in the senses.

O'Brien, M., & Lynch, H. (2011). Exploring the role of touch in the first year of life: mothers' perspectives of tactile interactions with their infants. The British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 74(3), 129-136.

Olausson, H., Lamarre, Y., Backlund, H., Morin, C., Wallin, B. G., Starck, G., ... & Bushnell, M. C. (2002). Unmyelinated tactile afferents signal touch and project to insular cortex. Nature neuroscience, 5(9), 900-904.

Owen, P. M., & Gillentine, J. (2011). Please touch the children: appropriate touch in the primary classroom. Early Child Development and Care, 181(6), 857-868.

Parsons, C. E., Young, K. S., Murray, L., Stein, A., & Kringelbach, M. L. (2010). The functional neuroanatomy of the evolving parent–infant relationship. Progress in neurobiology, 91(3), 220-241.

Parten, M. B. (1933). Social play among preschool children. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 28(2), 136.

Pedersen, C. A., Gibson, C. M., Rau, S. W., Salimi, K., Smedley, K. L., Casey, R. L., ... & Penn, D. L. (2011). Intranasal oxytocin reduces psychotic symptoms and improves Theory of Mind and social perception in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia research, 132(1), 50-53.

Pellegrini, A. D., & Smith, P. K. (1998). Physical activity play: The nature and function of a neglected aspect of play. Child development, 69(3), 577-598.

Perry, B. D. (2002). Childhood experience and the expression of genetic potential: What childhood neglect tells us about nature and nurture. Brain and mind, 3(1), 79-100.

Petersen, M. L. (2012). Knowledge of first time mothers about the importance of tactile stimulation during infancy and early childhood (Doctoral dissertation, Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University).

Pijnenborg, G. H. M., Withaar, F. K., Evans, J. J., Van den Bosch, R. J., Timmerman, M. E., & Brouwer, W. H. (2009). The predictive value of measures of social cognition for community functioning in schizophrenia: implications for neuropsychological assessment. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 15(2), 239.

Polan, H. J., & Ward, M. J. (1994). Role of the mother's touch in failure to thrive: A preliminary investigation. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 33(8), 1098-1105.

Polanczyk, G., Moffitt, T. E., Arseneault, L., Cannon, M., Ambler, A., Keefe, R. S., ... & Caspi, A. (2010). Etiological and clinical features of childhood psychotic symptoms: results from a birth cohort. Archives of general psychiatry, 67(4), 328.

Porges, S. W. (2004). Neuroception: A Subconscious System for Detecting Threats and Safety. Zero to Three, 24(5), 19-24.

Posadzki, P., & Parekh-Bhurke, S. (2011). Incorporation of massage into psychotherapy: An integrative and conjoint approach. Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine, 17(2), 154-158.

Post-White, J., Kinney, M. E., Savik, K., Gau, J. B., Wilcox, C., & Lerner, I. (2003). Therapeutic massage and healing touch improve symptoms in cancer.Integrative cancer therapies, 2(4), 332-344.

Prescott, J. W. (1995). Breastfeeding: Brain nutrients in brain development for human love and peace. Scientific American.

Reissland, N., & Burt, M. (2010). Bi-directional effects of depressed mood in the postnatal period on mother–infant non-verbal engagement with picture books. Infant Behavior and Development, 33(4), 613-618.

Remland, M. S., Jones, T. S., & Brinkman, H. (1995). Interpersonal distance, body orientation, and touch: Effects of culture, gender, and age. The Journal of social psychology, 135(3), 281-297.

Rinck, C. M., Willis, F. N., & Dean, L. M. (1980). Interpersonal touch among residents of homes for the elderly. Journal of Communication, 30(2), 44-47.

Rodin, J., & Langer, E. J. (1977). Long-term effects of a control-relevant intervention with the institutionalized aged. Journal of personality and social psychology, 35(12), 897.

Rosenblatt, P. C. (1974). Behavior in public places: Comparison of couples accompanied and unaccompanied by children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 750-755.

Rotarska-Jagiela, A., van de Ven, V., Oertel-Knöchel, V., Uhlhaas, P. J., Vogeley, K., & Linden, D. E. (2010). Resting-state functional network correlates of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia research, 117(1), 21-30.

Ruttle, P. L., Shirtcliff, E. A., Serbin, L. A., Ben-Dat Fisher, D., Stack, D. M., & Schwartzman, A. E. (2011). Disentangling psychobiological mechanisms underlying internalizing and externalizing behaviors in youth: Longitudinal and concurrent associations with cortisol. Hormones and behavior, 59(1), 123-132.

Scherer, K. R. (2003). Vocal communication of emotion: A review of research paradigms. Speech communication, 40(1), 227-256.

Schier, A. F., Neuhauss, S. C., Harvey, M., Malicki, J., Solnica-Krezel, L., Stainier, D. Y., ... & Driever, W. (1996). Mutations affecting the development of the embryonic zebrafish brain. Development, 123(1), 165-178.

Schneiderman, I., Zagoory-Sharon, O., Leckman, J. F., & Feldman, R. (2012). Oxytocin during the initial stages of romantic attachment: relations to couples’ interactive reciprocity. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37(8), 1277-1285.

Shapiro, D. L., & Levendosky, A. A. (1999). Adolescent survivors of childhood sexual abuse: The mediating role of attachment style and coping in psychological and interpersonal functioning. Child Abuse & Neglect, 23(11), 1175-1191.

Schore, A. N. (2003). Affect regulation and the repair of the self (Vol. 2). WW Norton & Company.

Skinner, H. B., Barrack, R. L., & COOK, S. D. (1984). Age-related decline in proprioception. Clinical orthopaedics and related research, 184, 208-211.

Smith, D. E., Willis, F. N., & Gier, J. A. (1980). Success and interpersonal touch in a competitive setting. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 5(1), 26-34.

Smith, J. C. S., Vogel, D. L., Madon, S., & Edwards, S. R. (2011). The power of touch: Nonverbal communication within married dyads. The Counseling Psychologist, 39(5), 764-787.

Smith, T. E., Hull, J. W., Huppert, J. D., & Silverstein, S. M. (2002). Recovery from psychosis in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: symptoms and neurocognitive rate-limiters for the development of social behavior skills.Schizophrenia research, 55(3), 229-237.

Snyder, J. R. (1997). Therapeutic touch and the terminally ill: healing power through the hands. The American journal of hospice & palliative care, 14(2), 83.

So, P. S., Jiang, Y., & Qin, Y. (2008). Touch therapies for pain relief in adults.Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 4.

Sohlström, A., Carlsson, C., & Uvnäs-Moberg, K. (2000). Effects of oxytocin treatment in early life on body weight and corticosterone in adult offspring from ad libitum-fed and food-restricted rats. Neonatology, 78(1), 33-40.

Steculorum, S. M., & Bouret, S. G. (2011). Maternal diabetes compromises the organization of hypothalamic feeding circuits and impairs leptin sensitivity in offspring. Endocrinology, 152(11), 4171-4179.

Stier, D. S., & Hall, J. A. (1984). Gender differences in touch: An empirical and theoretical review. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47(2), 440.

Suomi, S. J. (1978). Maternal behavior by socially incompetent monkeys: Neglect and abuse of offspring. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 3(1), 28-34.

Takeuchi, M. S., Miyaoka, H., Tomoda, A., Suzuki, M., Liu, Q., & Kitamura, T. (2010). The effect of interpersonal touch during childhood on adult attachment and depression: a neglected area of family and developmental psychology?. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19(1), 109-117.

Tang, R., Tegeler, C., Larrimore, D., Cowgill, S., & Kemper, K. J. (2010). Improving the well-being of nursing leaders through healing touch training. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 16(8), 837-841.

Tannenbaum, L., & Forehand, R. (1994). Maternal depressive mood: The role of the father in preventing adolescent problem behaviors. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 32(3), 321-325.

Tannock, Michelle T. "Rough and tumble play: An investigation of the perceptions of educators and young children." Early Childhood Education Journal 35.4 (2008): 357-361.

Thompson, E. H., & Hampton, J. A. (2011). The effect of relationship status on communicating emotions through touch. Cognition and emotion, 25(2), 295-306.

Toledo-Rodriguez, M., & Sandi, C. (2011). Stress during adolescence increases novelty seeking and risk-taking behavior in male and female rats.Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience, 5.

Tucker, J. S., & Anders, S. L. (1998). Adult attachment style and nonverbal closeness in dating couples. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 22(2), 109-124.

Turp, M. (2000). Touch, enjoyment and health: in adult life. European Journal of Psychotherapy, Counselling & Health, 3(1), 61-76.

Uvnäs-Moberg, K. E. R. S. T. I. N. (1997). Oxytocin linked antistress effects--the relaxation and growth response. Acta physiologica scandinavica. Supplementum, 640, 38.

Van der Kolk, B. A., McFarlane, A. C., & Weisaeth, L. (Eds.). (1996).Traumatic stress: The effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body, and society. Guilford Press.

Vanska, M., Punamaki, R. L., Tolvanen, A., Lindblom, J., Flykt, M., Unkila-Kallio, L., ... & Tulppala, M. (2011). Maternal Pre-and Postnatal Mental Health Trajectories and Child Mental Health and Development: Prospective Study in a Normative and Formerly Infertile Sample. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 35(6), 517-531.

Walker, Aimée Kleisner, and David MacPhee. "How home gets to school: Parental control strategies predict children's school readiness." Early Childhood Research Quarterly 26.3 (2011): 355-364.

Walker, C. D. (2010). Maternal touch and feed as critical regulators of behavioral and stress responses in the offspring. Developmental psychobiology, 52(7), 638-650.

Ward, R., Howorth, M., Wilkinson, H., Campbell, S., & Keady, J. (2012). Supporting the friendships of people with dementia. Dementia, 11(3), 287-303.

Weaver, I. C. (2011). Epigenetic Programming of Stress Responses and Trans-Generational Inheritance Through Natural Variations in Maternal Care. In Genomics, Proteomics, and the Nervous System (pp. 87-112). Springer New York.

Weinhold, B. (2006). Epigenetics: the science of change. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(3), A160.

Weiss, S. J. (1978). The language of touch: a resource to body image. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 1(1), 17-29.

Weiss, S. J., Wilson, P., & Morrison, D. (2004). Maternal tactile stimulation and the neurodevelopment of low birth weight infants. Infancy, 5(1), 85-107.

Weiss, Sandra J., et al. "Early tactile experience of low birth weight children: Links to later mental health and social adaptation." Infant and Child Development 10.3 (2001): 93-115.

Weller, A., & Feldman, R. (2003). Emotion regulation and touch in infants: the role of cholecystokinin and opioids. Peptides, 24(5), 779-788.

Wenner, M. (2009). The serious need for play. Scientific American Mind, 20(1), 22-29.

White, P. J., O’Reilly, M., Streusand, W., Levine, A., Sigafoos, J., Lancioni, G., ... & Aguilar, J. (2011). Best practices for teaching joint attention: A systematic review of the intervention literature. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(4), 1283-1295.

Willis Jr, F. N., & Briggs, L. F. (1992). Relationship and touch in public settings. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 16(1), 55-63.

Willis, F. N., Rinck, C. M., & Dean, L. M. (1978). Interpersonal touch among adults in cafeteria lines. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 47(3f), 1147-1152.

Willison, B. G., & Masson, R. L. (1986). The role of touch in therapy: An adjunct to communication. Journal of Counseling & Development, 64(8), 497-500.

Yang, J., Han, H., Chui, D., Shen, Y., & Wu, J. (2012). Prominent activation of the intraparietal and somatosensory areas during angle discrimination by intra‐active touch. Human brain mapping, 33(12), 2957-2970.

Register For Training

Find, view details, and register for our upcoming training programs.